Aquarium and Pond UV Sterilizer, Clarifier Reviews; Problems, Bulbs

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AQUARIUM AND POND UV STERILIZER REVIEW/ ARTICLES;
Information Articles (Posts), Ideas, Comments, & Links to even more Information about how UV (UVC) Sterilization works in Aquariums/ Ponds.
For a COMPLETE up to date article about aquarium and pond uv sterilization, please visit this site:
UV Sterilization in Aquariums and Ponds; How it works

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Aquarium-Pond UV Sterilizer History

 

Last Updated: 5/28/2016

Aquarium-Pond UV Sterilizer History (from my professional perspective dating back to 1978)

Aquarium UV Sterilizers as well as Clarifiers (which most of the Sterilizers now sold by discounters such as Amazon, eBay, AquaTop, etc, are actually just Clarifiers), have actually changed very little in the what's important and defines a useful sterilizer. This is unlike aquarium lighting and some other aspect of aquarium (& pond) keeping that have changed radically.

What has changed is how they are packaged and sold.

Decades back, most all UV Sterilizers used low pressure UVC bulbs/lamps, but now many use medium pressure and/or cold cathode UV lamps, which are much less efficient, but vastly less expensive. About the only differences were how the containment unit was designed, which affected exposure/dwell time and the use of a quartz sleeve or not.
As well, when new ideas came out, which did not work well, these were quickly retired as the industry was mostly driven by professional use and serious aquarium supply stores.
Unfortunately of late, some of these same bad designs have resurfaced, but are surviving in our sound-bite, Internet, big box retailer, & Amazon/eBay review world where measured science/experience based results do not matter anymore.

This is quite unfortunate, as this has allowed many poor quality UVs to survive, which use medium pressure UV lamps (which provide about 1/4 the UVC of a quality low pressure lamp), poor designs such as some of the "Hang on the Back" designs, which nothing more than copies of the failed Nektonics designs from the late 70s to early 80s, as well as submersible UV that not only include the first two faults, but also do not include important pre-filtration (these are commonly sold by Amazon).



So the purpose of this article is to provide some history of the aquarium/pond UV going back to about 1978, so as to help reader make better informed decisions before purchasing such an important piece of aquarium or pond equipment, which not only is well known for helping with clarity, but also with some disease prevention, as well as the lessor known help a good UV provide with Redox Balance, which in turn improves fish and other aquarium inhabitant immunity.

Some Background- I have been in the hobby since about 1967 and professionally employed since 1978. One of my expertise fields is fish disease prevention where I have carried out dozens experiments, along as made literally 1000s of observations in the 1000s of client's aquariums over the year in my care. UV Sterilization in particular became a major interest for me where I performed many experiments, and made many more observations. I also designed my own UV units to further experiment with. In addition, I also regularly attended trade shows and spoke with many experts in this field too which include Aquanetics and Aquatronics.

I will provide highlights of certain UV Sterilizers that I had considerable experience with and also represents important aspects and key developments of aquarium/pond UV Sterilizers. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list.
Also any times given are not meant to be exact, as well these are based on my time of use, not the years they were available to the general public.

  • Aquanetics UV Sterilizers:

    Aquanetics UV SterilizerCirca 1978- 1990?
    These are one of the best early UV Sterilizers I used and would also in turn recommend and sell based on results.

    These were generally an in-line UV Sterilizer that utilized 15, 25, & 30 Watt T8 style low pressure UV lamps/bulbs.
    Many of these also were straight water contact with the lamp with no quartz sleeve, although quartz sleeve models did become available too.
    The Aquanetics at the time I used these utilized reliable magnetic ballasts with starters, most of which the ballast themselves rarely went bad unless there was a leak in a seal and water got to the ballast.

    Most of these UVs lasted a decade or more, had an excellent dwell time and most importantly produced excellent results both by dozens observations and a few controlled test later in the 1980s using a bare tank with cloudy water and timing the clearing time.

  • Nektonics UV Sterilizers that connected to filters:

    Circa 1978- 1981?
    When these came out, I thought that this UV was a great idea as it allowed a compact UV that utilized a "non-traditional" 5 watt "bulb shaped" UV lamp whereby water was circulated in a non regulated fashion around the lamp. This UV connected easily to lift tubes such as the excellent Nektonics Under Gravel filter (their UV filters with their patented corrugated design were vastly more efficient than other flat plate UG filters).

    Unfortunately, the design allowed for constant calcium deposits on and around the lamp. The design also did not establish a very good flow pattern and thus a reliable dwell time was not assured. The distance from the lamp to the wall of the UV sterilization chamber was also higher than the Aquanetics resulting in poor sterilization capabilities.

    So in the end where I bought over a dozen of these UV Sterilizers, I found that while they could perform some clarification (even then taking much longer than the Nektonics), these simply were not a very good UV.
    An example would be, I had several marine oodinium outbreaks with these UVs in place, but once swapped out for the Aquanetics, while I still had an occasional incidence of oodinium, it was easily cut by 75% in the dozen marine tanks I swapped out UVs for

    This is not to knock Nektonics, as at the time they were often a cutting edge manufacturer of aquarium products, especially aimed at the growing in popularity marine fish keeping hobby, these were just unfortunately a "fail" that I learned from as I worked with UV Sterilizers in the future, including in designing some custom UVs of my own.

    Sadly, this design has come back from the grave in many HOB type UV sterilizers, that often also utilize medium pressure UV bulbs/lamps (at least the Nektonics used a low pressure UV lamp). These are commonly sold by Amazon and other mass merchandisers, so be wary of wasting your money on these, no matter how appealing the $30-$50 price for a UV Sterilizer combined with a filter that hangs on the back of your aquarium. In reality, these nothing more than basic filter with a pretty blue light inside them!!

    Further Reading About Medium Pressure UV Bulbs:
    Actual UV-C Emission from a UV Bulb; Aquarium or Pond

  • Lifeguard Modular UV Sterilizers (Models QL-8 & QL-15:

    Lifeguard modular UV SterilizerCirca 1978- 1992?
    The Lifeguard modular QL Sterilizers were a popular UV Sterilizer, which I did not initially purchase for my clients, but inherited at 10+ from clients who purchased their aquarium equipment elsewhere then contacted me for aquarium maintenance.
    These UVs used newer T5 lamps (smaller diameter than T8), but any improved efficiencies from these lamps were lost by a poor design that had poor water/UVC contact.

    In one example, I had a new client with a new LifeGuard QL UV, which had a cloudy 55 gallon hex shaped aquarium (which clearing an aquarium is generally a basic ability of UV Sterilizers). I brought over an Aquanetics 15 Watt run by a canister filter I used for moving from aquarium to aquarium, this aquarium was clear in a matter of hours.
    In every case I changed out these UV Sterilizers, I found similar improvements, although not all this dramatic. As with Nektonics, Lifegaurd has made many excellent products over the years, however my experience was these simply were not the best UV Sterilizer design. As well, like many Lifeguard products, these were over priced in my view, and Lifeguard was never very good at supporting aquarium professionals, often under selling to mail order and later discount online sellers rather than full service sellers (both online and stores), so in the end I am not a "fan" of this company.

    Further Reading: Turbo Twist, LifeGuard UV Sterilizer Review

  • Tetra Pond UVC-5, 9, 18, & 36:

    Tetra Pond UV SterilizerCirca 1988- ?
    This well made UV has been around in some form. While designated a Pond UV, I have also used it in aquariums too with good results.

    These are what are called "Compact UV Sterilizers" and use use a different style UV lamps than the straight tube UVs. These lamps/bulbs carry designations such as PLL, PLS, G23, G7, G11.
    Tetra only uses only quality low pressure high output UVC lamps/bulbs, however Tetra also makes many of the lamps proprietary so that it can be difficult to find the lamp without paying 2-3 times what a comparable high quality low pressure UV lamps would sell for.
    Thankfully some other options for quality replacement bulbs/lamps are now available at a better cost
    Resource: Premium UVC Replacement Bulbs/Lamps; Including Tetra G-7 9 Watt and G11 18 Watt

    Another issue I have with the Tetra UV is that while these are well designed and well made, there are also comparable quality UVs in build and lamp usage such as the SunSun Terminator for much less in cost. So often a buyer will pay considerably more for their Tetra UV and not actually get a better unit.

  • Tetra Pressurized Pond Filter with UV Sterilizer
  • Pressurized Pond Filters with Built in UV Clarifiers/Sterilizers:

    Circa 1988- ?
    The pressurized pond filter which fits in line from a water pump to many water features in a pond became a very popular method of efficient pond filtration.
    Later UV Clarifiers/Sterilizers were added to these filters including the Tetra, Nursery Pro, Via Aqua, SunSun and MANY others.

    The first one I used were the Tetra Pressurized Pond filter with UV. However I immediately noted that these were not very efficient even for basic clarification (even though the filter worked well).
    Upon adding a similar sized Tetra UV Sterilizer such as a 9 Watt, the improvements were dramatic as per clarification or speed of clarification.

    Why these poor results? for one the flow rate often over 2000 gph is simply too high for a 9 watt UV or most size UV lamps used, no matter the quality. As well the design of these filters do not lend them to optimum contact/dwell time. I have found this to be true regardless of brand.

    My suggestion is to utilize a separate quality UV Sterilizer in line AFTER your filter and if your flow rate is too high, which is likely, having a diverter valve after the filter so as to slow the flow rate to a rate more effective for clarification will improve results dramatically (under 50-70 gph per watt depending upon model). Reference: UV Sterilization; Flow Rate Table

    Product Source: Upgraded Pressurized Pond Filter with UV

  • Coralife Turbo Twist Compact UV Sterilizers:

    Circa 1995- ?
    This is another Compact UV like the Tetra that also uses quality low pressure high output UVC lamps/bulbs.

    However their design, which uses what I would describe as baffles does not lend itself to optimum water contact, and my use of many confirmed this with lessor results.

    Another issue that has come up with more recent usages is with the poor quality of their ballasts. My aquarium maintenance company bought a case of these Turbo Twist UVs and over a year time span, EVERY ONE FAILED!
    While this problem may already be fixed, based on this experience and effectiveness of design as well as the higher cost, these are definitely a UV Sterilizer I would not recommend.

    Further Reading: Turbo Twist, LifeGuard UV Sterilizer Review

  • Other Compact UV Sterilizers:

    Via Aqua, SunSun Terminator UV SterilizerCirca 1990- ?
    Many other Compact UV Sterilizer/Clarifiers have come out over the years, some good like the Tetra, but at a lower price such as the Via Aqua Terminator & newer SunSun version, some of much lower quality and design, including utilizing 25% of the output medium pressure UV Bulbs/Lamps when compared to higher output (and higher cost too) low pressure UV Bulbs/Lamps.

    The first incarnation of the Terminator was an excellent well built UV Sterilizer that had a good electronic ballasts (not all are as noted in the Coralife Turbo Twist section). The retail selling price was also much lower than the Tetra and these units also did not utilize the proprietary UV replacement Bulbs that the Tetra Compact UVs did. This resulted in the Terminator being my go to economy Compact UV for which I sold and used literally 100s.

    Unfortunately around 2010, and partly due to infringement on designs of many of their products, Via Aqua changed their design to one, which while still good, was a bit less reliable and more prone to workmanship issues.
    Later Via Aqua dropped this UV too.

    Thankfully SunSun has models that follow the original Terminator design, although they are not always equipped with low pressure UV bulbs out of the factory unless requested by the distributor and/or retailer. So be wary of some low price sellers of SunSun UV Sterilizers (Compact or otherwise) that are too cheap to be true, as these likely have lower price point medium pressure UV Bulbs.
    Further Reading About Medium Pressure UV Bulbs:
    Actual UV-C Emission from a UV Bulb; Aquarium or Pond

    Recommended Resource for SunSun Compact UV Sterilizers:
    SunSun Compact UV Sterilizers with High Output UV Bulbs/Lamps

  • Aqua, Emperor, & TMC UV Sterilizers:

    Emperor UV Sterilizer Review Circa 1990- ?
    The Aqua Ultraviolet, Emperor, and TMC/AAP Vecton & Advantage UV Sterilizers were three of the high end premium models I started using in the 1990s (this does not mean these were not around earlier). When the Aquanetics became less available along with new suppliers and new clients who already had this equipment before contracting with me for their aquarium or pond care, these were the three premium UVs I had the most exposure to.

    I found that the Aqua Ultraviolet along with the often similar Emperor UV to be excellent UVs with unsurpassed efficiency based many observations and a few of my simple bare tank timed clarification tests as well.
    The Aqua Ultraviolet & Emperor UV also unfortunately came out with gimmicky features such as wipers to supposedly scrap off build-up of material on the quartz sleeve between lamp/quartz sleeve 6-12 month servicings. However, while this worked OK with organic mulm, this feature did nothing for the main problem of build-up; hard water deposits.
    Reliability was excellent, but the few times of need of manufacturer warranty customer service as well as parts availability, these UVs were not as easy to take care of.

    My other complaint is not really with the unit itself, rather how the Emperor 50 Watt Smart UV is unfortunately marketed by a popular online discount reef supply seller that shows their limited experience using UV Sterilizers.
    While most definitely a very well built UV Sterilizer, it has poor dwell time in proportion to the input wattage used due to exposure time with the T5 lamp and high water volume within the reaction chamber.

    Here is some information as to why their claims are not totally correct (please note that the Emperor Smart 50 watt uses a T5 lamp):
    "While T5 lamps are roughly 16% more efficient at converting electrical energy into light energy, this does not necessarily make the T5 the better lamp as some have stated. Given two lamps of equal length, equal UVC light output, and equal flow rates, then the dwell time will be the same, and the germicidal effectiveness will be practically indistinguishable, regardless of the number of electrical watts pumped into each one.
    As an analogy it is like saying that if my car goes 140 mph with a 200 hp engine, and 160 mph with a 300 hp engine, then a 300 hp HYBRID engine (using 16% less gas) will make my car go 180 mph (as per the logic of using a T5 over a T8 UV lamp).

    Also, if the manufacturer uses a 5/8" diameter T5 instead of a 1" diameter T8, and reduces the tube sleeve diameter by 3/8" (compared to a T8 fixture), and then reduces the reaction chamber diameter by 3/8" (to stay within 3cm of the tube sleeve); in that case, the T5 fixture will have a smaller cross section area, which will REDUCE the dwell time for any given volume flow rate."


    Reference for Quote above: UV Sterilizer Dwell Time Test

    Further Reading: UV Sterilization; What Makes a Good UV Sterilizer

    TMC Vecton UV SterilizerTMC had a similar well made offering; the Vecton for aquariums and the Advantage primarily for ponds, although I have used several for aquariums too.
    Problems were non existent other than the occasional UV arriving with a broken quartz sleeve, this now in 1000s of sales/uses. My only complaint is earlier models of Vectons came with a gimmicky time set feature that was really a waste of time, thankfully they did away with this in favor of a much more practical 90 degree elbow that is now included.

    The Vecton is designed to be more compact and have a lower water volume design along with slightly better UVC exposure than the Advantage. The earlier versions of the Vectons has a rather gimmicky light set that was supposed to help remind the user when to change the lamp, however the normal method of keeping a log is actually more simple. Thankfully, this silly feature was done away with and instead the UV includes a more practical 90 degree elbow.

    Overall reliability as well as performance has been unsurpassed when compared to any other UV I have used.

    Parts availability is also second to none as many UVs nowadays do not have many parts other than the UV lamps readily available. I also like that the 30 watt models and lower still use a very heavy duty magnetic ballast, as I have found that even with the best of electronic ballasts, a 5 year life is often the best you will get which is not the case with these Vecton (& Advantages).
    Even if warranty service is needed (which again I have yet to need this in 1000s of applications), the UV only need be taken to the original retailer, not sent away by the owner for repairs.

    TMC Advantage UV Sterilizer

    Everything I stated about the Vecton as per reliability and performance holds true for the Advantage as well.

    The difference is the 55 Watt model (not available in North America) & the 110 watt model utilize an electronic ballast, which is still as good and reliable as any electronic ballast I have ever used, but just not as reliable as the TMC magnetic ballasts used in the smaller Advantages and Vectons. As per ballasts, what is noteworthy is that I have never replaced a failed magnetic ballast in any TMC UV other than when it was damaged by water, not by defect.

    The other difference is the volume of water the Advantage can hold when compared apples to apples such as the Vecton 25 watt to the Advantage 25 watt. The Advantage holds more water which allows for the higher flow rates generally needed/desired in ponds, however the UVC exposure is lower in the Advantages for this same reason.

    Overall, while I have used equally good UV Sterilizers as in the Aqua Ultraviolet, when value, parts availability, reliability, and warranty are considered, the TMC/AAP Advantage/Vecton UVs have been my clear choice for use personally and with my clients.

    Recommended Resource for AAP/TMC Premium UV Sterilizers:
    TMC Advantage & Vecton Aquarium/Pond Premium UV Sterilizer

  • Internal/Submersible UV Sterilizers:

    Circa 2007- ?
    Internal/Submersible UV Sterilizers/Clarifiers in their current form are relatively new to the aquarium/pond hobby/industry.
    However, they have unfortunately taken the hobby by storm. Why unfortunately? Because the vast majority are only good as clarifiers, despite less than honest statement these can actually be useful for disease pathogen control and Redox balance magnetism. The other major issue is many have issues with seals and/or ballast, resulting in life spans of well under a year, which does not seem to show up in poor Amazon reviews since these UVs usually get reviewed based on initial use.

    One other problem with the vast majority of the submersible/internal UVs is these do not utilize pre-filtration which is very important for effective UV Sterilization. Nor do most use high output UVC low pressure UV bulbs and instead utilize 1/4 output of UVC medium pressure UV Bulbs

    The first one to finally get it right is the AAP version of SunSun CUP 9 and 13 Watt which have pre-filtration, low pressure UV Bulbs, and a correct flow rate for the watt of UV used. Even then these same exact model numbers are also sold on Amazon without these important features for those who are unfamiliar with what is important for a decent UV Sterilizer.

    Further Reading:
    -UV Sterilizer Problems & Reviews; Submersible Pond, UVC Clarifier -Actual UV-C Emission from a UV Bulb; Aquarium or Pond

    Recommended Resource for SunSun CUP Submersible UV Sterilizers:
    SunSun Submersible UV Sterilizers with High Output UV Bulbs/Lamps & Pre-Filters

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Actual UV-C Emission from a UV Bulb; Aquarium or Pond

 

Last Updated: 2/26/2016

Bacteria Joke, Actual UVC Emissions from UV Bulb, Review
A great point was brought up in one of our blogs specify geared to sterilizers and UV bulbs.
All the time, we hear about the wattage a bulb of any kind uses.
A standard light we use in our homes are 60 watt bulbs.
In water sterilizers, the bulb might be a 30 watt bulb.

The point made and the question now being; does a 30 watt UV-C bulb emit 30 watts of useful sterilizing watts? And, the answer is No.
The UV-C wattage emitted is not the same wattage of a lamp.

Wattage of a bulb can be misleading. Watts used in a bulb is the power consumption of a bulb.
A 60 watt bulb used 60 watts of power. The actual output of a bulb is directly related to the wattage.
The higher the watts used, the great the power consumption.
But what is noteworthy, is that the wattage though does not actually tell us how much useful output the bulb has, or how efficient it is.
The efficiency of the bulb is the actual output of the bulb.



Specify speaking about UV-C bulbs, they have a light energy spike at a certain wavelength of light (254nm). This light energy is what sterilizes.
With any UV-C bulb, there will be an energy spike at this lighting level as well use some of it lighting energy on other parts of the lighting spectrum.

The light emitted at the UV-C namometer of light is the useful energy or wattage used from the bulb. The other energy emitted on the lighting spectrum that is not UV-C is essentially wasted energy.
Therefore the wattage of the lamp is not the same wattage being emitted of UV-C.
A 30 watt UV bulb does not emit 30 watts of UV-C.

Take a look at this picture which shows the energy spike of a UV bulb. At this spike, light energy has sterilizing abilities.

UVC Emission from Aquarium or Pond UV Bulb, review


In a premium low pressure true UV bulb, the actual UV-C emission of the bulb is about 35%. If you have a 30 watt UV bulb, it will emit 10.5 watts of germicidal UV-C.
Nail curing UV Bulbs, are commonly sold on Amazon & eBay for aquarium pond use at a lower cost (generally for prices of $5 to $15). These are usually medium pressure UV bulb with a low 7-10% output of useful UV-C irradiation.
Sadly one seller on eBay (Discount Aquatic) has gone as far as to illegally copy & paste information from AAPs Premium HO 9 Watt UV bulbs web page implying that theirs are also low pressure UV lamps, when in fact this is impossible for the $5.99 retail selling price, as the manufactured cost for these even from China is more than this retail price!!!!

As well the Halogen UV bulbs sold in some mini UV Sterilizers also have little of the peak UVC irradiation, more in the UVB range (these too are sold at discounters such as Amazon, not quality professional UV Sterilizer sellers). A good example of a UV Clarifier sold with these UV lamps is the Cobalt Aquatics Micro-UV which besides using the lower output Halogen UV lamp/bulb, it has very poor dwell time.

Both of these types of these low cost UV bulbs are marginal for clarification at best, certainly NOT level one or higher UV Sterilization unless used at very high wattages per water flow!! When combined with the lower dwell time that most of these Sterilizers that utilize these medium pressure lamps have (generally compact UVs), you are looking 1/4 the killing/sterilization/clarification power!!
An example would be comparing a TMC Vecton 15 Watt to a Jebaeo 55 watt that is commonly supplied with medium pressure UV lamps/bulbs (15 x 4 = 60).

Actual UV Output in Lamps purchased from Amazon

As an example, if you have a 9 Watt UV Sterilizer (such as the Turbo Twist), and when the bulb is due for replacement you utilize one of the low cost medium pressure UV Bulbs, you will be getting 1/4 to 1/3 the output of a premium low pressure bulb.
So if you have a flow rate of 200 gallons per hour on your say 50 gallon aquarium as would be a flow rate for low pressure UV Bulb, then switch to the low cost medium pressure UV Bulb, you would need a flow rate of 80 gph just to maintain Level One UV Sterilization.
The bottom line is to not be tempted by the low prices of the nail curing medium pressure UV Bulbs that many retailers either unknowingly or knowingly incorrectly market for pond or aquarium UV Sterilizer use!

Please Reference:
UV Sterilization; Basic Factors

Recommended Professional Source for Premium Low Pressure UV Bulbs:
American Aquarium Low Pressure UV Bulbs

Normally, the actual emission of a UV bulb is something you will not need to worry about, but what you do what to make sure is you are getting a large enough sterilizer for the water quantity you are looking to sterilization.
Company’s that know what they are talking about will publish this information or keep it in mind, when giving recommendation.
If you are not sure, make sure to look for what kind of bulb the sterilizer has and how much UV-C you are actually getting.

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18 Watt UV Bulb Review, for Turbo Twist 6X, more

 

Updated 2-23-16

18 Watt UV Bulb for aquarium or pond reviewI have already published articles/reviews earlier with the 9 Watt UV Bulbs and 13 Watt UV Bulbs commonly sold as replacements; either as not true hot cathode/low pressure lamps in the case of many 9 Watt lamps or with the incorrect base for many applications as in the 13 watt GX23 versus the 13 Watt G23.
In this review/article I will now look at another common UV Bulb that like the 9 watt in particular is often not what it seems; the 18 Watt G11 UV Replacement Bulb!!

9 Watt UV Bulb Review
13 Watt UV Bulb Review

In a market driven by price and "free shipping" the only way to deliver a so-called UV bulb at the prices offered is to sell the "medium pressure UV Bulb" as an implied "Hot Cathode, Low Pressure UV-C Bulb/Lamp", which NONE sold at prices much under $15 can be (especially when shipping is calculated in).
The cold hard facts are, NO business can exist selling a TRUE hot cathode, low pressure UV-C Bulb that has a cost of $13 OR MORE (out the door to the vendor) for this same price with shipping included!! Even at a retail price of $16- $20, a business would have to operate at a very low overhead and profit margin.

As well, although often difficult to find, the some 18 Watt G11 UV Replacement Bulbs use patented methods to lower operating temperature which increases the efficiency and UVC output.
Such as:
  • Patented Metal Heat shields
  • Norman lamps super high efficiency HO/low heat UV Bulbs.

These Heat Shields & Norman UV Lamps help with these aspects of the UV Bulb:
  • Lower operating temperatures which in turn increases energy directed as UVC (which is why you have a UV light in the first place). This 5° C difference increases efficiency about 5% or more, adding to the 75% improvement of these low pressure UV lamps over common lower cost medium pressure UV lamps/bulbs sold at online discounters and home improvement warehouses.
  • Longer Life and higher output over the life of the lamp.
  • Easier starts, which new hot cathode UV lamps are often difficult to start initially.

Please read these articles as to why only a low pressure, hot cathode bulb should EVER be used in your Aquarium UV Sterilizer, Pond UV Sterilizer/Clarifier, or Air UVC Purifier:


Simply put; these commonly sold, medium pressure bulbs at 7% germicidal 254nm UVC simply cannot destroy the bacteria or maintain aquatic Redox at any useful/normal flow rate when compared to the high UVC output hot cathode UV-C Replacement Lamps.
Basically these bulbs are only good for clarification and then only at lower flow rates than a low pressure UV Bulb

This is not to say that these higher output are not easy to find, as they can be found, you simply have to be willing to pay a bit more (often with sale prices high quality UV-C Bulbs/Lamps not that much more too). Several manufacturers/distributors such as American Aquarium Products, Purely, & Phillips all sell ONLY hot cathode, low pressure, Higher Output 254 nm UV Bulbs.

See this link for High Quality UV-C Bulbs/Lamps

See the graph below for a comparison of these two UV Bulbs types

18 Watt UV-C Bulb Comparison Review, eBay, Jebao, etc versus quality lamp

As the graph shows, the low pressure UV bulb has its energy spike primarily in the optimum UVC range, however the medium pressure UV light has several spikes, admittedly including some in the optimum range, which is why these bulbs can still get away with calling themselves 254 nm germicidal bulbs, when in reality only small percentage of their energy output is in this important UVC range.

The bottom line is do NOT let Google, eBay, Amazon, etc. guide you to one of these many websites selling these mostly useless medium pressure UV Bulbs that produce little UVC necessary for an effective UV Sterilizer or Purifier.
Spend a little more and purchase a American Aquarium, Purely, or Phillips 18 Watt Bulb, which often still only sell for $16 to $30 online.

American Aquarium Products hot cathode/low pressure 18 Watt is sold near cost as a promotional item and is THE true hot cathode 18 Watt UV Bulb to purchase for both quality & price!!
See:
18 Watt UV Bulb from American Aquarium

Please also read this article:
UV Lamps, Bulbs; How they work, Coatings, more

Please reference this unique, in depth, & researched article that is IMPERATIVE READING for anyone interested in moving from basic aquarium or pond keeping to more advanced aquarium or pond keeping:

Aquarium or Pond UV Sterilization, Correct Sterilizer Use


By Steven Wright with input from Carl Strohmeyer-PAMR

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Turbo Twist, LifeGuard UV Sterilizer Review

 

Updated 6/15/2016

Coralife TurboTwist 3xThe Coralife TurboTwist 3x, 6x, & 12x are very popular compact UV Sterilizer for aquarium or pond use.

Initial results using the Turbo Twist are comparable to other compact UVs, and are usually good from my experience as well as other aquarium maintenance professionals I know.

However is is important to note that NO compact UV whether the TurboTwist, the slightly better AAP/SunSun Terminator or Tetra, or the lessor Jebo can compare to a high dwell time straight tube UV such as the TMC Vecton UV (as well as the Aqua Ultraviolet or Emperor).
The Turbo Twist is simply not even in the same league!!

The Turbo Twist does employ HO UVC lamps as does the AAP Terminator, unlike the Jebo and other even lower quality Compact UV Sterilizers, but this is still not enough to make up for the poor dwell time compared to better level 2 & 2 capable UVs such as the Vecton (which also employ HO UVC lamps). While often promoted and given reasonably good marks in websites such as Amazon, long term and actual results are not as good as often inaccurately stated in these NON professional reviews displayed on Amazon which are generally based on initial use and clarification only, NOT level one sterilization or higher!!

One problem that is rarely noted in these Amazon reviews is the fact one of the selling points is also more of a gimmick and that is the baffles.
These Baffles do NOT maintain a consistent/effective distance from the UV lamp/Quartz Sleeve at all times. As well these baffles can trap air which then impedes the optimum flow and sterilization time of these UV Sterilizers.
Sometimes repositioning the Turbo Twist can help with air trapped, but often you simply need to accept this trapped air and lower your flow rate to 20 gph per watt or less just to maintain level 1 sterilization.
Unfortunately many unprofessional YouTube videos further the urban myth of the effectiveness of these baffles.
Example: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5PqPVMrO97k

The other unfortunate problem of the myth of the Turbo Twist being anything other than a most basic UV Clarifier, is that while many will rave about how the Turbo Twist UV initially cleared their cloudy or green aquarium, many persons will also state after using these particular UVs that this is all any UV is good for.
This UV is one that has influenced many a comment by persons I have read or dealt with in emails, etc. with little understanding of aquarium or pond UV Sterilization that all a UV is good for is clarification, but not disease control or improved Redox. The facts are, one cannot purchase this UV and then use it as a model of what a true high dwell time UV can accomplish!!!

References:
Aquarium or Pond UV Sterilization; Facts & Information
UV Sterilizers Gimmicks; 'Turbo' Twists, Baffles Wipers

A couple of problems that often show themselves after 6-12 months are leakage due to poor build and worse a VERY high electronic ballast failure.
See my other review about this problem:

Weak or Poor Quality Ballasts; UV Sterilizer Review

Another issue no Compact UV can compare on is dwell time.
In a controlled test from:
A controlled dwell time experiment

Also Read UV Sterilization, Facts & Information

Here is a quote (courtesy the above website, please read the referenced article for more):
A controlled experiment between a Terminator 13 Watt UV Sterilizer (which is one of the best if not the best compact UV Sterilizer design as per water contact design) VERSUS a TMC Vecton 8 Watt "High Dwell Time" UV tells the story of UVC Dwell Time:

Using a Rio 600 (200 gph), with 2 feet of 5/8" ID tubing; the dwell time inside the Vecton was 2.6 seconds, while the Terminator was 3 seconds.
It is important to note that the Terminator holds DOUBLE the water volume at 20 oz. water (meaning a less efficient design with more water not within the optimal .3 cm exposure zone) versus 10 oz. of water for the 8 Watt Vecton. Keep in mind that the Terminator is one of the best designed Compact UVs, as it is noteworthy that the Turbo Twist has an even higher water volume due to even less efficient water contact design.
The result is 6.66 ounces of water per second is exposed to UVC irradiation for the 13 Watt Terminator while 3.84 ounces of water per second is exposed to UVC irradiation for the 8 Watt Vecton. MORE IMPORTANTLY the results are 1.95 watts of UVC energy per second for the Terminator 13 watt versus 2.08 watts of UVC energy per second for the 8 Watt Vecton/


Now consider that the TurboTwist 3x actually has a flow pattern that has less water within the correct distance of UV Lamp from UV Sterilizer containment 'wall' when compared to the Terminator used in this test.
See: UV Sterilizer, Basic Factors for Sterilization

So my question is; WHY spend often as much money for the vastly over-priced TurboTwist with a lower quality Chinese build versus the European designed High Dwell Time TMC Vecton 8 Watt??

Based on my use and others, this is a no brainer, especially after one aquarium maintenance friend in particular purchased several Turbo Twist 3x UV Sterilizers and after a a year, he had to replace all of them and he noted that the observed actual sterilization results were much better when replaced with the TMC Vecton UV Sterilizers/Clarifiers

Or simply if you are looking for a good compact UV Sterilizer, consider the AAP Terminator UV Sterilizer.
Either way, the Turbo Twist in my experience is the most over priced UV Sterilizer on the market for what it can do and its longevity of build (a lifespan of about 1/5 that of a Vecton or Aqua Ultraviolet), so please do not fall for the hype or misguided forum or Amazon reviews for what basically should be a $50 or less UV Clarifier.

A resource for these UVs:
*TMC Vecton UV Sterilizers/Clarifiers
*http://www.americanaquariumproducts.com/CompactUVSterilizer.html

CLifeGuard 15 Watt UV Sterilizer The LifeGuard 15 Watt is an example of another somewhat lessor known UV Sterilizer. I have used these UV Sterilizers going back to 1978.

The build quality is good (comparable to the TMC UV Sterilizer), as well the dwell time is very good, however the flow pattern is not as good as the TMC Vecton & Advantage, or the Emperor and Aqua UV.
I also have found these UVs somewhat over priced for what you get, although the price has come down to be more comparable to the slightly more superior TMC Vecton 15 Watt.

My summary of the Lifeguard is while it is still inferior to the TMC, Aqua, Emperor; it is still an excellent UV Sterilizer and far superior to the Turbo Twist and other Compact UVs.


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